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control and treatment), Cohen's d can be obtained by the following formula: When a study reports a Chi-square test result with one degree of freedom (n=2), the following formula can be employed to approximate Cohen's d: abs(d) = 2*SQRT(Chi-square/N - Chi-square) where N is the total sample size When a study reports a hit rate (percentage of success after taking the treatment or no treatment), the following formula can be used: Other researchers may have different values for small, medium, and large effect size.The magnitude of effect size depends on the subject matter.

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value, by definition, is the probability of correcting rejecting the null hypothesis (no effect, no difference, or no relationship) assuming that the null is true. Consider the following scenarios: Do you think the above are satisfactory answers? However, this type of answer is exactly what we can get from conventional hypothesis testing.

When the null hypothesis is rejected, at most the conclusion is: "The null hypothesis is false! The effect, difference, or correlation is not zero." The p value tells you how unlikely the statistics can be observed in the long run by chance alone; it says nothing about the degree of treatment effectiveness, the magnitude of the association, or the distance of the performance gap.

It is important to point out that Cohen defined .40 as the medium effect size because it was close to the average observed effect size based on his literature review using Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology during the 1960s.

The so-called small, medium, and large effect sizes are specific to a particular domain (abnormal and social psychology) and thus they should not be treated as the universal guideline (Aguinis, & Harden, 2009).

By the same token, a t-test is a mean comparison in terms of the standard deviation. Effect size can be conceptualized as a standardized difference.

In the simplest form, effect size, which is denoted by the symbol "d", is the mean difference between groups in standard score form i.e.

Before the introduction of World Wide Web, hypertext and multimedia have been widely employed in computer-based instruction programmed in Hyper Card, Authorware, and Director.

Concepts related to Web-based instruction such as collaboration in chat sessions and mailing lists can be found in research on collaboration in other instructional settings.

For example, Baker and Dwyer (2000) conducted eight studies regarding visualization as an instructional variable (n=2000).

If all subjects are used for one analysis, the study will be over-powered.

Hunter and Schmidt (1990) suggested using a pooled within-group standard deviation because it has less sampling error than the control group standard deviation under the condition of equal sample size.